SUB TRACK: Molecular pathology, diagnostics span, hereditary, neoplastic,infectious diseases, Cancer, pathological diagnoses, molecular biology, biochemistry, clinical pathology, proteomics, morphologic, tissues,
The study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues, or body fluids is the focus of the developing field of molecular pathology, which belongs to pathology. It is commonly thought of as a “crossover” field because molecular pathology practises some components of anatomic pathology, clinical pathology, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics, and genetics. It has a multidisciplinary approach and largely focuses on the microscopic features of disease. One crucial factor to keep in mind is that when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic alterations in tissues (conventional anatomic pathology) and on molecular testing, it is feasible to make a diagnosis with a higher degree of accuracy.
Molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis and classification of human diseases, the design and validation of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression, and the propensity of people with different genetic make-ups to develop disorders are all included in this scientific field.
Cancer and infectious illness diagnosis frequently involve molecular pathology. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), multiplex PCR, DNA microarray, in situ hybridization, in situ RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, antibody-based immunofluorescence tissue assays, molecular profiling of pathogens, and analysis of bacterial genes for antibiotic resistance are just a few of the techniques available.
What does a molecular pathologist do?
A molecular genetic pathologist is an expert in molecular biology and molecular genetics’ theories, methods, and technology. Diagnoses of Mendelian genetic disorders, human development, infectious diseases, and cancers are made or confirmed using this expertise, and the natural history of those conditions is evaluated. A molecular genetic pathologist uses laboratory tools to diagnose, treat, and predict outcomes for people with associated conditions while providing information on gene structure, function, and modification.
Colorectal cancer’s molecular pathology
The availability of precursor lesions (adenomas) that may be seen on endoscopy and removed quite readily makes CRC one of the malignancies that has undergone the most extensive research. The molecular steps of the so-called adenoma-carcinoma sequence have been characterised, and they are more or less comparable to the description of the morphological alterations from normal via low-grade and high-grade dysplasia to cancer. The molecular process involves activating somatic mutations of P16 and APC, P53, and SMAD4 before inactivating somatic mutations of KRAS that result in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (single crypt with adenoma). Since Vogelstein et al. first described the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, it has become evident that CRC can evolve molecularly via at least three distinct paths. Chromosome instability affects 80% of CRC cases.
Tumor Molecular Abnormalities
Pathologists are typically responsible for molecular pathology and biomarkers, as they analyse molecular and genomic abnormalities in tissues for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Instead of considering the significance the findings may have for the molecular underpinnings of various tumour kinds, they are typically evaluated in terms of their practical relevance.
This chapter describes how the various genetic lesions (Chapter 5) and molecular abnormalities can be recognised in human cancers. The most prevalent molecular and genetic anomalies in lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate malignancies are outlined.
Molecular Pathology Association Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular Psychiatry Association, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Category:Biology societies, American Association for Clinical Chemistry, American Chemical Society, American Crystallographic Association, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Institute of Chemists(AIC), American Oil Chemists’ Society, American Society of Brewing Chemists, American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC International), Association of Greek Chemists,
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